Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    An unbiased profile model, fit to diameter divided by diameter at breast height, overestimated volume of 5.3-m log sections by 0.5 to 3.5%. Another unbiased profile model, fit to squared diameter divided by squared diameter at breast height, underestimated bole diameters by 0.2 to 2.1%. These biases are caused by retransformation of the predicted dependent variable; the degree of retransformation bias depends upon choice of dependent variable in the regression model, variance of its prediction errors, and the bole position of the desired prediction. Retransformation biases were greatest near the merchantable top of large trees. Equations are given that reduce the magnitude of these biases, but accurate variance models are required. Additional biases are identified for more complex transformations of stem profile models.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Czaplewski, Raymond L.; Bruce, David. 1990. Retransformation bias in a stem profile model. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20(10): 1623-1630.


    retransformation bias, stem profile model, unbiased profile model

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page