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    This study describes the composition and structure of a mature, second-growth
    Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) and Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine)-dominated
    old-field stand. Now owned by the University of Arkansas, this 22.5-ha parcel just
    outside of the city of Monticello, AR, has been protected as a de facto natural area
    since the 1950s. Many of the overstory pines exceeded 75 cm in diameter at breast
    height (DBH) and some have reached 100 cm. Increment cores indicated that most
    of the pine overstory originated between 80 and 100 years ago, probably following
    agricultural abandonment. Pine recruitment occurred somewhat gradually until
    the canopy closed, after which tree species establishment became dominated by
    hardwoods. Of the nearly 6000 tree seedlings/saplings per hectare in the interior of
    this stand, just under 4% were pineā€”the under- and midstory were dominated by
    shade-tolerant hardwoods. No obvious evidence of past land-management practices
    remained, save the rare old stump or formerly open-grown pine or oak. Coarse
    woody debris is beginning to accumulate in some portions of the stand, primarily
    from the senescence of short-lived hardwoods. Comparisons with other tracts in
    southern Arkansas suggest that this stand differs from other contemporary examples
    of mature pine-dominated timber, with a richness in composition and structure not
    apparent in managed stands of natural or planted origin.

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    Bragg, Don C.; Heitzman, Eric. 2009. Composition, structure, and dynamics of a mature, unmanaged, pine-dominated old-field stand in southeastern Arkansas. Southeastern Naturalist. 8(3): 445-470.

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