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    Author(s): D. R. Vogler
    Date: 2008
    Source: International Oak Journal, 19: 67-76
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.56 MB)


    The pine-oak rust fungi, which live out their lives as pathogens on pines and oaks, have multiple spore states and complex life cycles. Because they can be severe pathogens of pines, much of what we know about them depends on how damaging they are to management of pine forests for timber, recreation, and ecosystem values. Widely distributed in North America, they are often difficult to identify on their oak hosts, and thus the distributions and frequencies of many  species are not well known, especially in urban and rural forest settings. Although they are usually minor pathogens on oaks, changing climates could alter that relationship.

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    Vogler, D. R. 2008. The pine-oak rusts: How forest tree species connect. International Oak Journal, 19: 67-76

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