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    Author(s): Chad Atwood; Thomas Fox; David L. Loftis
    Date: 2009
    Source: Forest Ecology and Management 257 (2009) 1305–1313.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (643.34 KB)


    Stump sprouts are an important form of regeneration for a number of species in the southern

    Appalachians, especially the oaks (Quercus spp.). Alternative regeneration systems to clearcutting such

    as shelterwood and leave-tree systems are being implemented in many hardwood stands in the

    Appalachians. However, the effects of these alternative silvicultural systems on stump sprouts are not

    known. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of three silvicultural systems: a clearcut, leave-tree, and

    shelterwood on stump sprouting. These treatments were implemented in seven stands in Virginia and

    West Virginia in the Appalachian Plateau (AP) and Ridge and Valley (RV) physiographic provinces. The

    stands were even-aged oak dominated Appalachian hardwood stands with ages ranging from 62 to 100

    years. Species were placed into six groups: (1) red oak (Quercus spp.), (2) chestnut oak (Q. prinus L.), (3) white

    oak (Q. alba L.) and hickory (Carya spp.), (4) red maple (Acer rubrum L.), (5) mixed mesic, and (6)midstory

    groups. Partial harvesting also reduced the number of sprouts per stump for the red oak group and red

    maple. Sprouting probabilities were generally less in the Appalachian Plateau than the Ridge and Valley,

    particularly for the oaks (Quercus spp.). Partial harvesting systems decreased sprouting in both

    physiographic provinces. However, the sprouting in specific species groups varied between the two

    physiographic provinces. In the Ridge and Valley, the highest sprouting rates were in the clearcut for the

    red oak (60%), chestnut oak (77%), white oak–hickory (26%), and midstory (33%) species groups. Red

    maple sprouting was highest in the leave-tree (67%) in the Ridge and Valley. The mixed mesic and

    midstory groups were only reduced in the Ridge and Valley. Sprouting was negatively correlated with

    residual basal area for the red oak group, chestnut oak, and red maple. For the all oak species except

    white oak, sprouting was reduced by about 2% for every 1m2/ha increase in residual basal area.

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    Atwood, Chad J; Fox, Thomas R; Loftis, David L. 2009. Effects of alternative silviculture on stump sprouting in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management 257 (2009) 1305–1313.


    Variable retention harvest, oak regeneration, clearcut, leave-tree, shelterwood, stump sprouts

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