Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Harry O. Yates; David R. Smith
    Date: 2009
    Source: J. Entomol. Sci. 44(3):276-283
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: View PDF  (1.28 MB)

    Description

    Larvae of Xyela gallicaulis Smith cause shoot stem galls in young pines. Loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., is the most seriously damaged, but galls have been observed on slash pine, P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm., and shortleaf pine, P. echinata Mill. Studies in Virginia and Georgia confirm a 2-year life cycle. Larval development takes 4 - 6 wks. After feeding, larvae bore out of the galls and drop to the ground where they form a papery cocoon in the soil to pupate, and where they remain for 22 - 25 months. Adults emerge from cells constructed in the soil from early-December to mid-January of the second year. Eggs are inserted into the vegetative buds during odd-numbered years. Insect associates found feeding in or on gall tissues are the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Tortricidae), and the weevil Conotrachelus carolinensis Schoof (Curculionidae).

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to pubrequest@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Yates, Harry O., Smith, David R. 2009. History, distribution, damage, and life cycle of a pine shoot gali sawfly, Xyela gallicaulis (Hymenoptera: Xyelidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 44(3):276-283

    Keywords

    symphyta, pinus, shoot galls

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33977