Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Introduced exotic earthworms now occur in every biogeographic region in
    all but the driest or coldest habitat types on Earth. The global distribution
    of a few species (e.g.,
    but now approximately 120 such peregrine species are recognized to
    be widespread from regional to global scales, mainly via human activities.
    Species adapted to human transport and to colonization of disturbed habitats
    are most widespread and are the principal invasive species.We identify
    a number of endogenous and exogenous factors that may contribute to the
    successful establishment and spread of peregrine species. Quantification of
    these factors may help to determine why certain species become invasive
    while others do not. Recent advances in theory and modeling of biological
    invasions and in molecular techniques should prove fruitful in improving our
    understanding of invasive earthworms, as well as in predicting their impacts
    on ecosystems.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Hendrix, P.F., M.A. Callaham, Jr., J.M. Drake, C.-Y. Huang, S.W. James, B.A. Snyder, and W.X. Zhang. 2008. Pandora’s box contained bait: The global problem of introduced earthworms. Annual Reviews in Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 39:593-613.


    biological invasions, exotic species, oligochaete biogeography, soil fauna

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page