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    The forests of southeastern North America are influenced by a variety of

    disturbances including fire and insect outbreaks. In this paper, we discuss the role

    of disturbances in structuring forest landscapes with particular emphasis placed on

    the reciprocal interaction between forest structure and outbreaks of the southern

    pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann). We highlight work in which we

    are currently involved to illustrate the importance and utility of using spatially

    explicit forest modeling as a tool for understanding forest–insect interactions and

    its potential role in determining management strategies.

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    Cairns, David MArtin; Lafon, Charles W.; Birt, Andrew G.; Waldron, John D.; Tchakerian, Maria; Coulson, Robert N.; Xi, Weimin; Klepzig, Kier. 2008. Simulation modeling as a tool for understanding the landscape ecology of the southern pine beetle infestations in Southern Appalachian forests. Geograpy Compass 2/3: 580-599

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