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    Author(s): C.J. Fettig; S.R. McKelvey; C.P. Dabney; R.R. Borys; D.P.W. Huber
    Date: 2009
    Source: Journal of Applied Entomology 133(2): 143-154
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (273.05 KB)


    A blend of eight nonhost angiosperm volatiles (benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, guaiacol, nonanal, salicylaldehyde, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol) without [NAV] and with [NAVV] (–)-verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) were tested at low (L), medium (M) and high (H) release rates for their ability to reduce attraction of western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, to attractant-baited (exo-brevicomin [racemic, 3 mg/d], frontalin [racemic, 3 mg/d] and myrcene [18 mg/d]) multiple funnel traps. NAV-L (40 mg/d) had no significant effect. Verbenone alone (50 mg/d) and NAV-M (240 mg/d) both significantly reduced attraction, but no significant difference was observed between the two treatment means. NAV-H (430 mg/d) significantly reduced catches by ∼60% and 78% compared to verbenone alone and the baited control, respectively. In a second experiment, combining (–)-verbenone with NAV (NAVV) increased the effects observed in Experiment 1. NAVV-M (240 mg/d) resulted in an ∼69% and 83% reduction in trap catch compared to verbenone alone and the baited control, respectively. Significantly fewer D. brevicomis were captured in NAVV-H (430 mg/d) than any other treatment resulting in an ∼93% reduction in trap catch compared to the baited control. In a third experiment, NAVV was tested at three release rates for its ability to protect individual ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., from attack by D. brevicomis. Cumulative release rates varied in direct proportion to tree diameter, but represented quarter, half and full NAVV rates. NAVV significantly reduced the density of D. brevicomis attacks, D. brevicomis successful attacks, and levels of tree mortality on attractant-baited trees. Only three of 15 NAVV-treated trees died from D. brevicomis attack while ∼93% mortality (14/15) was observed in the untreated, baited control. Quarter and half rates were ineffective for reducing tree mortality.

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    Fettig, C.J., S.R. McKelvey, C.P. Dabney, R.R. Borys, and D.P.W. Huber. 2009. Response of western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to different release rates of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone. Journal of Applied Entomology 133(2): 143-154.

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