Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): William H. McWilliamsSusan L. Stout; Todd W. Bowersox; Larry H. McCormick
    Date: 1995
    Source: North. J. Appl. For. 12(4):187-191.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (129.77 KB)


    Measurement of tree seedlings and herbaceous vegetation from 499 sample locations across Pennsylvania revealed that advance tree-seedling regeneration is inadequate for new stand establishment across most of the State. The samples were located in stands from 40% to 75% stocked to focus on stands with ample light and growing space for establishment of abundant advance regeneration. A range of regeneration adequacy criteria was applied to the measurements. Using the least stringent criterion, a low density of stems of any tree species, resulted in 40% of the sample locations being adequately stocked. Applying the most stringent criterion, a high density of stems of desirable species, resulted in only 4% of the sample locations being adequately stocked. With the exception of forest-type group, no significant relationship was found between the adequacy of regeneration and other variables tested at the broad level of geographic scale of this study. Levels of fern and grass sufficient to hamper tree-seedling development were found at 54% of the sample locations. Fern species that propagate primarily by spreading rhizomes accounted for 70% of the total fern sample.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    McWilliams, William H.; Stout, Susan L.; Bowersox, Todd W.; McCormick, Larry H. 1995. Adequacy of Advance Tree-Seedling Regeneration in Pennsylvania's Forests. North. J. Appl. For. 12(4):187-191.


    regeneration, Pennsylvania, stocking

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page