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    Author(s): Richard S. Cowles; Anthony F. Lagalante
    Date: 2009
    Source: In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 17-18.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (124.77 KB)


    Systemic insecticides have protective and therapeutic value for managing hemlock woolly adelgid in forests (Webb et al. 2003, Cowles et al. 2006, Cowles 2009). Although use of insecticides in forests for managing this pest cannot be considered a sustainable long-term strategy, systemic insecticides are an effective option for maintaining the health of hemlock trees so that they can continue to provide ecosystem and aesthetic functions until such time that biocontrol or plant resistance become established.

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    Cowles, Richard S.; Lagalante, Anthony F. 2009. Activity and persistence of systemic insecticides for managing hemlock woolly adelgids

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