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Ailanthus, tree-of-heaven update, a northeast regional biological control project


Scott M. Salom
Loke T. Kok
Nathan Herrick
Tom McAvoy
Donald Davis
Mark Schall
Matt Kasson
Du Yu-Zhou
Ji Hailong
He Xiao
Richard Reardon



Publication type:


Primary Station(s):

Northern Research Station


In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 52-53.


The tree-of-heaven (TOH), Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), is an invasive weed tree distributed throughout most of the continental United States. It is a hardy pioneer species that colonizes disturbed sites, such as road medians, rights-of-way, and forest settings. It produces allelopathic chemicals, millions of seeds, and sprouts back when cut, making it an extraordinarily good competitor, resulting in the displacement of native plant species. Herbicide treatments can provide short-term relief, but are expensive and nonsustainable.


Salom, Scott M.; Kok, Loke T.; Herrick, Nathan; McAvoy, Tom; Davis, Donald; Schall, Mark; Kasson, Matt; Yu-Zhou, Du; Hailong, Ji; Xiao, He; Reardon, Richard. 2009. Ailanthus, tree-of-heaven update, a northeast regional biological control project

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