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    Author(s): Aaron S. Weed; Richard A. Casagrande
    Date: 2009
    Source: In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 60.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (118.97 KB)


    Two swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum), originating from Europe, have become established in the eastern United States and Canada. Swallow-worts are herbaceous perennials that persist in a variety of habitat types in North America although their distribution in Europe is restricted. In North America, populations of V. nigrum grow in open habitats and along forest margins whereas V. rossicum penetrates dense forests. Their population expansion and aggressive growth threaten native biodiversity and disrupt ecological processes.

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    Weed, Aaron S.; Casagrande, Richard A.. 2009. Status report: biological control of swallow-worts

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