Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Steven Wondzell; Justin LaNier; Roy Haggerty; Richard D. Woodsmith; Richard T. Edwards
    Date: 2009
    Source: Water Resources Research: 45.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (933.48 KB)


    We investigated the response of hyporheic exchange flow (HEF) to wood removal in a small, low-gradient, gravel bed stream in southeast Alaska using a series of groundwater models built to simulate REF for the initial conditions immediately after wood removal and 1 month, 2 years, 4 years, and 16 years following wood removal. The models were based on topographic surveys of the stream channel and surrounding floodplain, and surveyed water surface elevations (WSEs) were used to assign stream boundary conditions. Using the groundwater flow model, MODFLOW, and the particle tracking model, MODPATH, we calculated hyporheic exchange fluxes, their residence time distributions, and both longitudinal and plan view spatial patterns of downwelling and upwelling zones. In the first few years, streambed scour and sediment deposition smoothed the streambed and WSE profile, reducing HEF. Also, large contiguous patches of downwelling or upwelling were fragmented, nearly doubling the total number of patches present on the streambed. As the stream continued to adjust to the loss of wood, those trends began to reverse. Accretion of sediment onto alternating bars resulted in better developed pool-riffle morphology, enhanced HEF, and increased residence times and also resulted in downwelling and upwelling zones coalescing into elongated patches along bar margins. This study showed that the hyporheic zone is sensitive to changes in wood loading and that initial changes in HEF resulting from the direct effects of wood removal were contrary to longer-term channel adjustments to changes in wood loading.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Wondzell, Steven M.; LaNier, Justin; Haggerty, Roy; Woodsmith, Richard D.; Edwards, Richard T. 2009. Changes in hyporheic exhange flow following experimental wood removal in a small, low-gradient stream. Water Resources Research. 45: W05406.


    Google Scholar


    hyporheic, large wood, streams, riparian, residence time, downwelling, upwelling, Alaska.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page