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    Author(s): Jeffrey Garnas; David Houston; Matthew Ayres; Celia Evans
    Date: 2009
    Source: In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 71.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (120.52 KB)


    Biotic threats to tree growth, survival, or reproduction often arise from interactions among a suite of species, primarily insects and fungi, that function together to varying degrees to defeat host defenses, secure resources, and infect new hosts. Where two or more organisms interact, there is strong potential for positive or negative feedbacks that can have large effects on host population and disease dynamics.

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    Garnas, Jeffrey; Houston, David; Ayres, Matthew; Evans, Celia. 2009. Population dynamics of the felted beech scale and associated Neonectria species, causal agents of beech bark disease

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