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    Author(s): Jerome F. Grant; James Rusty Rhea; Paris Lambdin; Greg Wiggins; Abdul Hakeem
    Date: 2009
    Source: In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 72.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (120.46 KB)


    While commonly used approaches (petri dishes, small arenas, growth chambers, greenhouse studies, sleeve cages, etc.) for evaluation of natural enemies provide important information, does the small size of these arenas limit their usefulness when evaluating introduced natural enemies for release against pests of tree species? Can methods be improved to evaluate natural enemies of these pests? A project was developed to assess the use of large tree cages to enhance our understanding of the survival, colonization, and establishment of introduced biological control agents against the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, on eastern hemlock, and to assess the impact of these agents on population densities of this serious invasive pest and on tree health.

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    Grant, Jerome F.; Rhea, James “Rusty”; Lambdin, Paris; Wiggins, Greg; Hakeem, Abdul. 2009. Why cage a tree? Use of whole-tree enclosures to assess introduced predators of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae

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