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    Author(s): Nathan J. Herrick; Scott M. Salom; Loke T. Kok; Thomas J. McAvoy
    Date: 2009
    Source: In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 77.
    Publication Series: Other
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (148.55 KB)


    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven, is a species native to China and North Vietnam. It was first introduced into the United States in the 1700s and is now distributed and invasive throughout much of North America where it out-competes native vegetation. The invasiveness of tree-of-heaven is primarily attributed to the lack of natural enemies in North America, its aggressive invasion of newly disturbed areas, tolerance of extreme conditions, and allelopathic properties.

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    Herrick, Nathan J.; Salom, Scott M.; Kok, Loke T.; McAvoy, Thomas J. 2009. Foliage feeding tests of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent of the tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima

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