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    As international trade increases so does the prominence of urban areas as gateways for exotic forest insects (EFI). Delimiting hot spots for invasions (i.e., areas where establishment is likely) within urban areas would facilitate monitoring efforts. We used a propagule-pressure framework to delimit establishment hot spots of a hypothetical generalist EFI in six U.S. urban areas: Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, New York-Newark, and Seattle. We assessed howurban tree cover and propagule pressure interact to delimit establishment hot spots and compared the location of these hot spots with actual recent U.S. detections of two EFI: the Asian strain of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

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    Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Haack, Robert A.; Magarey, Roger A.; Margaret L. Margosian. 2009. Modeling spatial establishment patterns of exotic forest insects in urban areas in relation to tree cover and propagules pressure. Journal of Economic Entomology 103: 108-118.


    invasive species, nonindigenous species, urban forest, emerald ash borer

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