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    Fertilization is an integral component of nursery culture for production of high quality seedlings for afforestation and reforestation because it can enhance plant growth, nutrient storage reserves, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses (Landis, 1985). While fertilizer is conventionally applied during spring and summer in accordance with the active growing period, fall fertilization has also been used to further enhance seedling quality in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP.) (Boivin et al., 2004), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (Sung et al., 1997; VanderSchaaf and McNabb, 2004), slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii [Engelm.]) (Irwin et al., 1995), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) (Margolis and Waring, 1986; van den Driessche, 1985, 1988). Although seedlings are undergoing the hardening process for winter dormancy at this time, fall fertilization still promotes nutrient exploitation for storage reserves.

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    Islam, M. Anisul; Apostol, Kent G.; Jacobs, Douglass F.; Dumroese, R. Kasten. 2009. Fall fertilization of Pinus resinosa seedlings: nutrient uptake, cold hardiness, and morphological development. Annals of Forest Science. 66: 704.


    cold hardiness, growth, nitrogen fertilization, needle primordia

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