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    Beech bark disease (BBD) has been killing American beech trees in eastern North America since the late 1890s (Ehrlich, 1934). The disease is initiated by feeding of the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which leads to the development of small fissures in the bark. Over time, as the population of scale insects builds on the bark, the small wounds provide entryway for fungal infection by one of the species of Neonectria. As the fungus invades, it kills the inner bark tissue and, may completely girdle the tree, leading to death. Cankers may form as the tree attempts to stop the infection from spreading, resulting in wood defects.

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    Koch, Jennifer L. 2010. Beech bark disease: the oldest "new" threat to American beech in the United States. Outlooks on Pest Management. April 2010: 64-68.


    beech scale insec, Cryptococcus fagisuga, American beech, Fagus grandifolia, Neonectria, beech bark disease

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