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    Author(s): Paul L. Ringold; Barry Mulder; Jim Alegria; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Tim Tolle; Kelly Burnett
    Date: 2003
    Source: In: Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C., editors. Monitoring Ecosystems: Interdisciplinary Approaches for Evaluating Ecoregional Initiatives. Washington, DC: Island Press. p. 73-99.
    Publication Series: Book Chapter
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (2.34 MB)

    Description

    The growing literature on ecosystem management describes an adaptive system in which monitoring measures progress toward goals, increases our knowledge, and improves our plans (e.g., Holling 1978; Walters 1986; Duffus III 1994; Everett et al. 1994; Grumbine 1994; Bormann et al. 1995; Gunderson et al. 1995; Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force 1995; Montgomery et al. 1995; Christensen et al. 1996; Yaffee et al. 1996). Adaptive management acknowledges that action is necessary or appropriate, although knowledge may be imperfect (Raiffa 1968; Holling 1978; Walters 1986; Everett et al. 1994; Grumbine 1994; USFS and BLM 1994b; Gunderson et al. 1995). Less-than-perfect knowledge is likely to be the rule in ecosystem management, especially when the objectives include the restoration and maintenance of complex ecological patterns and processes over large areas and long periods of time.

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    Citation

    Ringold, Paul L.; Mulder, Barry; Alegria, Jim; Czaplewski, Raymond L.; Tolle, Tim; Burnett, Kelly. 2003. Design of an ecological monitoring strategy for the Forest Plan in the Pacific Northwest. In: Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C., editors. Monitoring Ecosystems: Interdisciplinary Approaches for Evaluating Ecoregional Initiatives. Washington, DC: Island Press. p. 73-99.

    Keywords

    ecological monitoring strategy, adaptive management, imperfect knowledge, ecosystem management

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