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    Author(s): Keith Walters; Claire Sansford; David Slawson
    Date: 2010
    Source: In: Frankel, Susan J.; Kliejunas, John T.; Palmieri, Katharine M. 2010. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-229. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. pp. 6-16
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    PDF: View PDF  (105.22 KB)

    Description

    Since the first reports in Great Britain (GB) of Phytophthora ramorum (2002) and P. kernoviae (2003), the death of a small number of infected trees and of heathland Vaccinium has been recorded. Initial policy against these pathogens was one of containment, with a view to eradication based on recommendations arising from Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs), whilst more evidence was gathered on their likely impact. Both pathogens have continued to spread slowly, mainly in the southern and western part of GB.
    In 2008, a policy and science review, including a public consultation, was carried out in England and Wales, examining the current situation and options for future management of both pathogens. The consultation resulted in the conclusion that an increase in the current level of phytosanitary activity was required to reduce the potential risk of increased tree death and impacts to heathlands and heritage gardens in England and Wales.
    A new 5 year programme of work aimed at reducing the risk of P. ramorum and P. kernoviae spreading further was launched by United Kingdom (U.K.) Ministers (March 2009); £4m was allocated for each of the first 3 years of the programme. Earlier research at woodland outbreak sites in southwest England showed that proactive clearance of sporulating hosts (whether infected or not), especially invasive Rhododendron ponticum, was effective in reducing pathogen inoculum and disease spread in woodlands, gardens and parks. This appears to have prevented further infection of trees at a number of woodland sites where clearance has been implemented. Consequently, future management in woodlands and the wider environment will include removal of infected and susceptible plants, and the identification and management of any new outbreaks. Activities will concentrate initially on high-risk, valuable sites, and vulnerable, ecologically important habitats.
    Enhanced containment and eradication measures in infected gardens and nursery sites will also be undertaken, together with an education and awareness programme to build and disseminate best practice protocols, aimed at minimizing the risk that these pathogens pose. A new research programme will improve our understanding of the two pathogens and the diseases they cause, enabling an update of the PRAs, thus informing programme activity, particularly with reference to disease control in a range of environments including heathland.  

    Publication Notes

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    Citation

    Walters, Keith; Sansford, Claire; Slawson, David. 2010. Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae in England and Wales—Public Consultation and New Programme. In: Frankel, Susan J.; Kliejunas, John T.; Palmieri, Katharine M. 2010. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-229. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. pp. 6-14

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