Skip to Main Content
Living Memorials: Understanding the Social Meanings of Community-Based Memorials to September 11, 2001Author(s): Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell
Source: Environment and Behavior. 42: 318-334.
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Northern Research Station
View PDF (175.66 KB)
DescriptionLiving memorials are landscaped spaces created by people to memorialize individuals, places, and events. Hundreds of stewardship groups across the United States of America created living memorials in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. This study sought to understand how stewards value, use, and talk about their living, community-based memorials. Stewards were asked to describe the intention, use, and meanings of the memorials. Qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis were used to analyze 117 semi-structured interviews. Sacredness of space varied by a memorial’s site type and uses. This and other findings supported the notion of sacred space as contested space. Sacred space can be produced from acts of "setting aside" that ascribe meaning to a memorial site.
- Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
- Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
- During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
- Please contact Sharon Hobrla, firstname.lastname@example.org if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationSvendsen, Erika S.; Campbell, Lindsay K. 2010. Living Memorials: Understanding the Social Meanings of Community-Based Memorials to September 11, 2001. Environment and Behavior. 42: 318-334.
Keywordssacred space, memorial, September 11, civic stewardship, prememorial period
- Co-creators of memory, metaphors for resilience, and mechanisms for recovery: flora in living memorials to 9/11
- Community-based memorials to September 11, 2001: environmental stewardship as memory work
- Living memorials project: year 1 social and site assessment
XML: View XML