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    Author(s): G. Miller; A.E. Lugo
    Date: 2009
    Source: IITF-GTR-35.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    PDF: Download Publication  (6.0 MB)


    This guide is an introduction to the ecological systems of Puerto Rico. It covers the diversity of ecological systems in the island, their most common plant and animal species, and salient aspects of their structure and functioning. Terrestrial, wetland, coastal, and marine ecosystems are included, as well as agroforest and urban systems. The discussion of the ecological systems of Puerto Rico is presented in the historical, cultural, and natural disturbance regime of the Island. In addition, we discuss the environmental infrastructure and organizations responsible for the conservation of Puerto Rico’s natural resources, and provide useful information to facilitate field visits to representative examples of the Island’s ecological systems.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Miller, G.; Lugo, A.E. 2008. Guide to the ecological systems of Puerto Rico. General Technical Report IITF-GTR-35. Rio Piedras, PR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry. 437 p.


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    Ecological systems, rain forests, dry forests, tropical forests, coral reefs, estuaries, mangroves, seagrasses, Puerto Rico.

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