Skip to Main Content
The altitude of alpine treeline: a bellwether of climate change effectsAuthor(s): William K. Smith; Matthew J. Germino; Daniel M. Johnson; Keith Reinhardt
Source: Botanical Review. 75: 163-190
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
View PDF (3.58 MB)
DescriptionBecause of the characteristically low temperatures and ambient CO2 concentrations associated with greater altitudes, mountain forests may be particularly sensitive to global warming and increased atmospheric CO2. Moreover, the upper treeline is probably the most stressful location within these forests, possibly providing an early bellwether of forest response. Most treeline studies of the past century, as well as recently, have correlated temperatures with the altitudinal limits observed for treelines. In contrast, investigations on pre-establishment seedlings, the most vulnerable life stage of most tree species, are rare. There appears to be specific microclimatic factors dictated by wind and sky exposure that limit seedling survival, and also generate the distorted tree forms commonly observed at treeline. Seedling survival appears critical for creating the biological facilitation of microclimate at the community level, which is necessary for the growth of seedlings to normal tree stature, forming new subalpine forest at a higher altitude.
- You may send email to firstname.lastname@example.org to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationSmith,W.K.; Germino, M.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Reinhardt, K. 2009. The altitude of alpine treeline: a bellwether of climate change effects. Botanical Review. 75: 163-190.
Keywordstreeline, timberline, ecotone, seedling, facilitation, climate
- Characterizing Betula litwinowii seedling microsites at the alpine-treeline ecotone, central Greater Caucasus Mountains, Georgia
- Recent climate warming forces contrasting growth responses of white spruce at treeline in Alaska through temperature thresholds
- Variation in carbohydrate source-sink relations of forest and treeline white spruce in southern, interior and northern Alaska
XML: View XML