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    We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan, Mexico, to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at 124 sampling localities from May through July, in 1994 and 1995. Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak-pine, oak, fir, and cloud forests; three habitat types were plantations of Eucalyptus, pine, and mixed species; and the remaining two habitats were shrublands and pastures. Pastures had lower bird-species richness and abundance than pine, oak-pine, and mixed-species plantations. Pine forests had greater bird abundance and species richness than oak forests and shrublands. Species richness and abundance of endemics were greatest in fir forests, followed by cloud forests. Bird abundance and richness significantly increased with greater tree-layer complexity, although sites with intermediate tree complexity also supported high abundances. When detrended correspondence-analysis scores were plotted for each site, bird species composition did not differ substantially among the four native oak-and-pine forest types, but cloud and fir forests, Eucalyptus plantations, and mixed-species plantations formed relatively distinct groups. Plantations supported a mixture of species found in native forests, shrublands, and pastures. Pastures and shrublands shared many species in common, varied greatly among sites in bird-species composition, and contained more species specific to these habitats than did forest types.

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    Garcia, Santiago; Finch, Deborah M.; Leon, Gilberto Chavez. 1998. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management. 110: 151-171.


    cloud forests, eucalyptus plantations, pastures, species richness, correspondence analysis

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