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    Author(s): Peter R. Pettengill; Robert E. Manning; William Valliere; Laura E. Anderson
    Date: 2010
    Source: In: Watts, Clifton E., Jr.; Fisher, Cherie LeBlanc, eds. Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-66. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 157-163.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report - Proceedings
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (352.33 KB)

    Description

    Historically, transportation planning and management have been guided largely by principles of efficiency. Specifically, the Transportation Research Board has utilized a levels of service (LOS) framework to assess quality of service in terms of traffic congestion, speed and travel time, and maximum road capacity. In the field of park and outdoor recreation management, on the other hand, indicators and standards of quality have emerged as an important conceptual framework for assessing the quality of visitor experience. This contemporary management-by-objectives approach provides a standard of quality based upon minimum acceptable conditions. While LOS is an effective utilitarian approach to transportation planning, application of an indicators-and-standards framework could prevent unacceptable negative impacts to park resources and the visitor experience. Past studies in Acadia National Park (Maine), Blue Ridge Parkway (Virginia), and Muir Woods National Monument (California) provide a means for exploring this conceptual bridge.

    Publication Notes

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    Citation

    Pettengill, Peter R.; Manning, Robert E.; Valliere, William; Anderson, Laura E. 2010. Pedestrian Levels of Service (LOS) at Muir Woods National Monument (California): An introduction to multi-modal LOS for parks and protected areas. In: Watts, Clifton E., Jr.; Fisher, Cherie LeBlanc, eds. Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-66. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 157-163.

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