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    In many boreal and temperate forests, ungulates are an important feature valued by many stakeholders. However, conflicts often arise due to the use of a forest by both domestic and wild ungulates and other uses such as timber production, recreation and conservation. In this paper, we present and synthesize several concepts and suggestions that have applicability for ameliorating these conflicts. The amount, location and juxtaposition of forage, water, minerals (e.g. salt, molasses blocks) and cover are major determinants of range quality and, in turn, influence how ungulates use forests. Moreover, by strategically dispersing these key elements throughout a landscape will also disperse animal use by decreasing ungulate numbers in a given area thus reducing potential conflicts with other forest uses. Other approaches such as fences, herding, coarse woody debris dispersion, stand regeneration methods and site preparation methods can also be used to influence animal movement and use. By far, the most important aspect of minimizing ungulate conflicts is to integrate their use and requirements into a silvicultural system that is planned, executed and evaluated within and among landscapes and is developed to meet non-conflicting forest management objectives.

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    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Theresa B.; Kingery, James L. 2010. Ameliorating conflicts among deer, elk, cattle and/or other ungulates and other forest uses: a synthesis. Forestry. 83(3): 245-255.


    ungulates, boreal and temperate forests

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