Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata), is a unique fir, the sole member of the subgenus Pseudotorreya. It is a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen sclerophyll forest, and is now restricted to a highly fragmented range in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central coastal California. Expected heterozygosity for 30 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, averaged over six populations that spanned the species’ north–south range, was only 0.036. Despite a fragmented range and isolated populations, differentiation (F ST) was only 0.080 for mature trees, and the number of migrants per generation (Nm) was 2.88 or 3.83, depending on the method of estimation. FST for embryos was lower, 0.025, and Nm correspondingly higher, 9.75. Nei’s genetic distances were small and unrelated to geographic distances between populations. The proportion of full seeds per cone was only 0.082–0.488, depending on population, which suggests a high incidence of selfing followed by embryo abortion. However, the level of accumulated inbreeding, FIS, in mature trees was low, only 0.049. By contrast, FIS for embryos was 0.388, which indicates a high proportion of selfed progeny, in agreement with the low seed yields. The difference in inbreeding coefficients between seed trees and their progeny suggest that most inbreds are eliminated before maturity and, therefore, seed production, already low, overestimates the true potential for regeneration of these populations. These results have implications for conservation.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Ledig, F. Thomas; Hodgskiss, Paul D.; Johnson, David R. 2006. Genetic diversity and seed production in Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata),a relict of the Miocene Broadleaved Evergreen Forest. Conservation Genetics 7(3): 383-398. DOI- 10.1007/s10592-005-9049-x


    Google Scholar

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page