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    The increasing impact of wildland fire on human settlements in the USA, and a growing recognition that evacuation might not always to the safest option for those in the path of the flames, continue to spur consideration of alternatives to evacuation among the American public and its fire professionals. Alternatives to evacuation typically include the option for residents to remain in fire-hardened structures while the flames pass; however, it appears there is no clear consensus on whether existing Australian alternatives or new variations should be used in American communities, and if any option will reduce risks to residents and firefighters. This study uses structuration theory to analyse adoption of the shelter-in-place policy created by the Rancho Santa Fe Fire Protection District in southern California. We interviewed professionals working in and around the District and the public affected by the policy.

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    Paveglio, Travis B.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Jakes, Pamela J. 2010. Adoption and perceptions of shelter-in-place in California's Rancho Santa Fe Fire Protection District. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 19: 677-688.


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    alternatives to evacuation, community development, public safety, Stay and Defend or Leave early

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