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    The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180ºC for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium sulfite (w/w of wood). The recoveries of total saccharides (hexoses and pentoses) were 87.9% (SPORL) and 56.7% (DA), while those of cellulose were 92.5% (SPORL) and 77.7% (DA). The total of known inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and formic, acetic and levulinic acids) formed in SPORL were only 35% of those formed in DA pretreatment. SPORL pretreatment dissolved approximately 32% of the lignin as lignosulfonate, which is a potential high-value co-product. With an enzyme loading of 15 FPU (filter paper units) per gram of cellulose, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yields were 91% at 24 h for the SPORL substrate and 55% at 48 h for the DA substrate, respectively.

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    Shuai, L.; Yang, Q.; Zhu, J.Y.; Lu, F.C.; Weimer, P.J.; Ralph, J.; Pan, X.L. 2010. Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production. Bioresource Technology. 101: 3106-3114.


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    Alcohol, fuelwood, biomass energy, biomass, utilization, biotechnology, pretreatment, sugars, lignocellulose, biodegradation, cellulose, fermentation, spruce, sulfuric acid, enzymes, industrial applications, wood chips, glucose, lignin, pentoses, furfural, formic acid, acetic acid, carbohydrates, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, SPORL, biomass fuel, ethanol, bioconversion, biorefining, wood extractives, chemical utilization, saccharification, chips, hexoses, sulfite liquors, levulinic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

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