Skip to Main Content
Due to a lapse in federal funding, this USDA website will not be actively updated. Once funding has been reestablished, online operations will continue.
Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond's and western flycatchers in northwestern CaliforniaAuthor(s): H.F. Sakai
Source: Western Birds. 19(2): 49-60
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
PDF: View PDF (405.0 KB)
DescriptionThe Hammond's (Empidonax hammondii) and Western (E. difficilis) flycatchers are sympatric within portions of their breeding ranges in north- western California. Westerns are common in a variety of habitats (Bent 1942:247, Johnson 1980:11-23); Hammond's are more abundant at higher elevations (Bent 1942:226, Johnson 1963:140-143). Only one ma- jor study of each species' breeding biology has been reported; both looked at the species in places where they do not occur together. Davis et al. (1963) studied the breeding biology of Westerns in a hardwood-dominated forest in northern Monterey County, California. Davis (1954) studied the breeding biology of Hammond's in mixed coniferous and deciduous forests at Flathead Lake, Montana. More knowledge is needed of both species' breeding ecology and behavior where they are sympatric on their nesting grounds. I report here on a comparative study of the breeding behavior and biology of color-marked birds.
- You may send email to firstname.lastname@example.org to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationSakai, H.F. 1988. Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond''s and western flycatchers in northwestern California. Western Birds. 19(2): 49-60.
- Variation in the foraging behaviors of two flycatchers: associations with stage of the breeding cycle
- Nest site characteristics of Hammond's and Pacific-slope flycatchers in northwest California
- Use of Hardwood Tree Species by Birds Nesting in Ponderosa Pine Forests
XML: View XML