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    An optimal tree stembucking systemwas developed for central Appalachian hardwood species using three-dimensional (3D) modeling techniques. ActiveX Data Objects were implemented via MS Visual C++/OpenGL to manipulate tree data which were supported by a backend relational data model with five data entity types for stems, grades and prices, logs, defects, and stem shapes. A network analysis algorithm was employed to achieve the optimal bucking solution with four different alternative stage intervals under the bucking by value principle. A total of 264 tree stems were measured in the field including stemdimensions, defects, sweep, and themanual bucking solution of each stem. Results when using the 3D optimal bucking system suggest that compared to manual bucking the total log value and volume gain from each tree stem could be increased on average by 31 to 38 percent and 16 to 17 percent, respectively.

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    Wang, Jingxin; Liu, Jingang; LeDoux, Chris B. 2009. A three-dimensional bucking system for optimal bucking of Central Appalachian hardwoods. International Journal of Forest Engineering. 20(2): 26-35.


    optimal bucking, 3D modeling, mathematical programming, network analysis, Appalachian hardwoods, manual bucking, log grades, log prices

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