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    This study examines whether different social and marginalized groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, immigrants, low income, less educated) perceive more constraints or barriers to outdoor recreation participation than White middle-class males. Logistic regressions were applied to data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment to model the probability that individuals perceived certain constraints to participating in outdoor recreation activities. Eighteen constraints related to health, safety, socio-economic standing, and other personal factors were examined. Results indicated minorities, women, low income, less educated and elderly populations, in particular, were more likely to perceive they were constrained from participating in their favorite activities. In comparing these results to an earlier study, minorities, women, and urban dwellers perceived more constraints to recreation participation today than in previous years.

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    Green, G.T.; Bowker, J.M.; Wang, X.; Cordell, H.K.; Johnson, Cassandra Y. 2009. An Examination of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation. Journal of Public Affairs and Issues 12:28-53.


    Constraints, Logistic Regression, Marginalized Groups, Recreation Participation, Social Groups

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