Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Matthew P. Thompson; John Sessions
    Date: 2010
    Source: Environmental Modeling and Assessment. doi: 10.1007/s10666-010-9220-8.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (344.33 KB)


    Forest road decommissioning is a pro-active mechanism for preventing future habitat degradation and for increasing the likelihood of endangered salmonid survival in the western U.S. High implementation costs however preclude many desirable projects from being undertaken, especially on federally owned land. Previous research and real-world applications have demonstrated the cost savings potential of reusing aggregate recovered from forest roads during decommissioning. These cost savings can effectively subsidize decommissioning projects, suggesting an economic benefit associated with improving environmental benefit. We present a mixed integer, multiple objective formulation to identify the efficient trade-off surface between conflicting economic and environmental criteria, where environmental benefit is defined as the hazard weighted length of roads decommissioned. We compare nondominated frontiers identified with and without the opportunity to recycle aggregate. Our results suggest that aggregate recycling promotes a synergistic relationship between cost savings (subsidy) and environmental performance, where subsidies generally increase with increasing environmental performance. Effective subsidy values can reach 31% of total expenditure, at the maximum level of environmental benefit. Transportation managers are therefore able to recover and reuse a nonrenewable resource, while at the same time promoting economic and environmental efficiency.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Thompson, Matthew P.; Sessions, John. 2010. Exploring environmental and economic trade-offs associated with aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads. Environmental Modeling and Assessment. doi: 10.1007/s10666-010-9220-8.


    Google Scholar


    aggregate recycling, forest roads, aquatic habitat, decommissioning, watershed restoration, mixed integer programming, multiobjective optimization, trade-off analysis

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page