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    In the boreal forest, fire, insects, and logging all affect spatial patterns in forest age and species composition. In turn, spatial legacies in age and composition can facilitate or constrain further disturbances and have important consequences for forest spatial structure and sustainability. However, the complex three-way interactions among fire, insects, and logging and their combined effects on forest spatial structure have seldom been investigated. We used a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine these interactions. Specifically, we investigated how the amount and the spatial scale of logging (cutblock size) in combination with succession, fire, and spruce budworm outbreaks affect area burned and area defoliated.

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    James, Patrick M.A.; Fortin, M.-J.; Sturtevant, B.R.; Fall, A.; Kneewhaw, D. 2011. Modeling spatial interactions among fire, spruce budworm, and logging in the boreal rorest. Ecosystems. 14: 60-75.


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    dynamic feedbacks, forest management, landscape legacies, forest disturbance, spatial modelling, landscape pattern metrics

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