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    The use of fixed-area plots for sampling down coarse woody debris is reviewed. A set of clearly defined protocols for two previously described methods is established and a new method, which we call the 'sausage' method, is developed. All methods (protocols) are shown to be unbiased for volume estimation, but not necessarily for estimation of population density in terms of number of down pieces. The new sausage method performs best overall in terms of minimum variance criteria. This review should also help establish a description of the major fixed-area plot sampling methods that will allow unambiguous application and description in future studies.

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    Gove, Jeffrey H.; Van Deusen, Paul C. 2011. On fixed-area plot sampling for downed coarse woody debris. Forestry. 84(2): 109-117.


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