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    Author(s): Charles B. Halpern; Joseph A. Antos; Janine M. Rice; Ryan D. Haugo; Nicole L. Lang
    Date: 2010
    Source: Journal of Vegetation Science. 21(4): 717-732
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (3.2 MB)


    We combined spatial point pattern analysis, population age structures, and a time-series of stem maps to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of conifer invasion over a 200-yr period in three plots totaling 4 ha. In combination, spatial and temporal patterns of establishment suggest an invasion process shaped by biotic interactions, with facilitation promoting expansion of trees into meadows and competition influencing subsequent forest development. Once invasion is initiated, tree species with different life histories and functional traits can interact synergistically to promote rapid conversion of meadow to forest under a broad range of climatic conditions.

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    Halpern, Charles B.; Antos, Joseph A.; Rice, Janine M.; Haugo, Ryan D.; Lang, Nicole L. 2010. Tree invasion of a montane meadow complex: temporal trends, spatial patterns, and biotic interactions. Journal of Vegetation Science. 21(4): 717-732.


    Abies grandis, competition, ecosystem conversion, facilitation, grassland invasion by trees, mountain meadows, Pinus contorta, tree age structure, tree spatial structure

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