Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Maureen C. Kennedy; E. David Ford; Thomas M. Hinckley
    Date: 2009
    Source: Tree Physiology. 30: 3-22
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (7.55 MB)

    Description

    Many hypotheses have been advanced about factors that control tree longevity. We use a simulation model with multi-criteria optimization and Pareto optimality to determine branch morphologies in the Pinaceae that minimize the effect of growth limitations due to water stress while simultaneously maximizing carbohydrate gain. Two distinct branch morphologies in the Pareto optimal space resemble Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl., respectively. These morphologies are distinguished by their performance with respect to two pathways of compensation for hydraulic limitation: minimizing the mean path length to terminal foliage (Pseudotsuga) and minimizing the mean number of junction constrictions to terminal foliage (Abies). Within these two groups, we find tradeoffs between the criteria for foliage display and the criteria for hydraulic functioning, which shows that an appropriate framework for considering tree longevity is how trees compensate, simultaneously, for multiple stresses. The diverse morphologies that are found in a typical old-growth conifer forest may achieve compensation in different ways. The method of Pareto optimization that we employ preserves all solutions that are successful in achieving different combinations of criteria. The model for branch development that we use simulates the process of delayed adaptive reiteration, whereby new foliage grows from suppressed buds within the established branch structure. We show that Pseudotsuga morphology is not the only solution to old-growth constraints, and we suggest how the model results should be used to guide future empirical investigation based on the two contrasting morphologies and how the morphological contrast may relate to physiological processes. Our results show that multi-criteria optimization with Pareto optimality has promise to advance the use of models in theory development and in exploration of functional--structural trade-offs, particularly in complex biological systems with multiple limiting factors.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to pnw_pnwpubs@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Kennedy, Maureen C.; Ford, E. David; Hinckley, Thomas M. 2009. Defining how aging Pseudotsuga and Abies compensate for multiple stresses through multi-criteria assessment of a functional-structural model. Tree Physiology. 30: 3-22.

    Keywords

    age-related decline, carbon limitation, hydraulic limitation, Pareto optimality, reiteration

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page