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    Author(s): Daniel Bowker; Jeff Stringer
    Date: 2011
    Source: In: Fei, Songlin; Lhotka, John M.; Stringer, Jeffrey W.; Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Miller, Gary W., eds. Proceedings, 17th central hardwood forest conference; 2010 April 5-7; Lexington, KY; Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-78. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 128-133.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report - Proceedings
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (73.69 KB)

    Description

    Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) is one of the most widely distributed exotic invasive tree species in the United States and has become naturalized throughout the central hardwood forest. It opportunistically establishes in areas associated with silvicultural regeneration treatments and extirpation often requires the targeting of individual trees due to the close proximity of native co-occurring stems. Further, tree-of-heaven is a prolific root and stump sprouter, and extirpating this exotic invasive tree species requires not only killing the aboveground stem but also ensuring that lateral roots are killed. The study was designed to test the efficacy of five individual tree treatments in killing stems and preventing sprouting: EZ-Ject® (granulated glyphosate), full basal bark (triclopyr ester), hack and squirt (picloram/2,4-D), hack and squirt (glyphosate), and tree injection (picloram/2,4-D). The mortality and sprouting of sapling-sized tree-of-heaven developing in two naturally regenerating hardwood stands were investigated. We treated 410 stems. Treatments provided effective top kill compared to the untreated control group with treatment top dieback figures ranging from 91 to 100 percent compared to less than 15 percent for the untreated control. Treatment areas were examined for the occurrence and type of sprouts (basal stem, root collar, and lateral root). Th e EZ-Ject® glyphosate treatment exhibited 33-percent total sprouting in 2006 and 5 percent in 2007 compared to a range of 3 to 12 percent for other treatments in 2006 and 0 to 2 percent for all other treatments in 2007. This study indicates that all forms of sprouting should be considered when control options are tested and that EZ-Ject® applications with glyphosate may not provide thorough control of sprouting.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Bowker, Daniel; Stringer, Jeff. 2011. Efficacy of herbicide treatments for controlling residual sprouting of tree-of-heaven. In: Fei, Songlin; Lhotka, John M.; Stringer, Jeffrey W.; Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Miller, Gary W., eds. Proceedings, 17th central hardwood forest conference; 2010 April 5-7; Lexington, KY; Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-78. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 128-133.

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