Skip to Main Content
Due to a lapse in federal funding, this USDA website will not be actively updated. Once funding has been reestablished, online operations will continue.
The magnificent high-elevation five-needle white pines: Ecological roles and future outlookAuthor(s): Diana F. Tomback; Peter Achuff; Anna W. Schoettle; John W. Schwandt; Ron J. Mastrogiuseppe
Source: In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 2-28.
Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
PDF: View PDF (2.26 MB)
DescriptionThe High Five symposium is devoted to exchanging information about a small group of pines with little commercial value but great importance to the ecology of high-mountain ecosystems of the West. These High Five pines include the subalpine and treeline species - whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), Rocky Mountain bristlecone (P. aristata), Great Basin bristlecone (P. longaeva), and foxtail (P. balfouriana) - the montane to subalpine pine, southwestern white (P. strobiformis), and the lower treeline to upper treeline pine, limber (P. flexilis). Here, we discuss the taxonomy, distribution, ecology, and Native American use of these pines, as well as current threats and conservation status. Traditional classification places the bristlecones and foxtail pine together in Subsection Balfourianae, limber and southwestern white pine in Subsection Strobi, and whitebark pine in Subsection Cembrae. Whitebark pine has the largest range and most northerly occurrence. The distribution of limber pine is also large, with a wide elevational range.
- You may send email to firstname.lastname@example.org to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationTomback, Diana F.; Achuff, Peter; Schoettle, Anna W.; Schwandt, John W.; Mastrogiuseppe, Ron J. 2011. The magnificent high-elevation five-needle white pines: Ecological roles and future outlook. In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 2-28.
Keywordshigh elevation five-needle pines, threats, whitebark, Pinus albicaulis, limber, Pinus flexilis, southwestern white, Pinus strobiformis, foxtail, Pinus balfouriana, Great Basin bristlecone, Pinus longaeva, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata
- The U.S. Forest Service's renewed focus on gene conservation of five-needle pine species
- Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration
- Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies
XML: View XML