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    Author(s): Jennifer D. Scott; Diana F. Tomback; Michael B. Wunder
    Date: 2011
    Source: In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 61-62.
    Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (155.57 KB)

    Description

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), one of five stone pines worldwide, is found at treeline and subalpine elevations in the mountains of western North America (McCaughey and Schmidt 2001). Considered a keystone species, it helps maintain subalpine biodiversity, protects watersheds and promotes post-fire regeneration (Tomback and others 2001). The Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) and whitebark pine are co-evolved mutualists (Tomback 1982). Nutcrackers remove seeds from whitebark pine cones and cache them in high- and low-elevation forests and terrain, returning to feed on the seeds for up to a year. Nutcrackers are the principal mode of seed dispersal for whitebark pine, and unretrieved seeds are the primary source for regeneration (Hutchins and Lanner 1982; Tomback 1982, 2001).

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    Citation

    Scott, Jennifer D.; Tomback, Diana F.; Wunder, Michael B. 2011. Determining Clark's nutcracker use of whitebark pine communities in regard to stand health in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 61-62.

    Keywords

    high elevation five-needle pines, threats, whitebark, Pinus albicaulis, limber, Pinus flexilis, southwestern white, Pinus strobiformis, foxtail, Pinus balfouriana, Great Basin bristlecone, Pinus longaeva, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata

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