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    Author(s): Richard A. Sniezko; Mary F. Mahalovich; Anna W. SchoettleDetlev R. Vogler
    Date: 2011
    Source: In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 246-264.
    Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (3.01 MB)

    Description

    All nine species of white pines native to the U.S. or Canada are susceptible to the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola. Of the six high elevation white pine species, the severe infection and mortality levels of Pinus albicaulis have been the most documented, but blister rust also impacts P. aristata, P. balfouriana, P. flexilis and P. strobiformis; only P. longaeva has not been documented to be infected in its natural range. Early evaluations of resistance included relatively few seedlots and demonstrated that these species have some genetic resistance to blister rust but generally less than their Eurasian relatives. Recently, more extensive evaluations of these six species have begun. These recent rust tests capitalize on the methods developed from decades of prior experience by the USDA Forest Service in testing P. monticola and P. lambertiana. Following artificial inoculation, seedlings are evaluated for up to five years for an array of putative resistant responses including reduced number of needle spots, needle spot color, hypersensitive reaction in the needles, shedding of infected needles, presence or absence of stem infections, number of stem infections, latency of infection, severity of infection, bark reactions, and survival with stem infections.

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    Citation

    Sniezko, Richard A.; Mahalovich, Mary F.; Schoettle, Anna W.; Vogler, Detlev R. 2011. Past and current investigations of the genetic resistance to cronartium ribicola in high-elevation five-needle pines. In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 246-264.

    Keywords

    high elevation five-needle pines, threats, whitebark, Pinus albicaulis, limber, Pinus flexilis, southwestern white, Pinus strobiformis, foxtail, Pinus balfouriana, Great Basin bristlecone, Pinus longaeva, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38234