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    Author(s): Cyndi M. Smith; Graeme Poll; Cameron Gillies; Celina Praymak; Eileen Miranda; Justin Hill
    Date: 2011
    Source: In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 365-374.
    Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (670.82 KB)

    Description

    Limber pine plays an important role in the harsh environments in which it lives, providing numerous ecological services, especially because its large, wingless seeds serve as a high energy food source for many animals. Limber pine populations are declining due to a combination of white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, drought, and fire suppression. Outplanting of seedlings is a common strategy to aid in restoration efforts, but the success of revegetation methods in limber pine habitats is little known. To aid in restoration efforts in Waterton Lakes National Park, in southwestern Alberta, and other impacted areas, we studied the survival of limber pine planted as seeds and those planted as seedlings. At our experimental site, 11 percent of the seeds had germinated and seedlings were still alive after three years, while 72 percent of the seedlings that were planted directly survived. Restoration efforts are likely to have greater success when limber pine is planted in groups of five as seedlings rather than as seeds and there may be benefit to planting seedlings in burned areas near cover such as rocks or stumps.

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    Citation

    Smith, Cyndi M.; Poll, Graeme; Gillies, Cameron; Praymak, Celina; Miranda, Eileen; Hill, Justin. 2011. Limber pine seed and seedling planting experiment in Waterton Lakes National Park, Canada. In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 365-374.

    Keywords

    high elevation five-needle pines, threats, whitebark, Pinus albicaulis, limber, Pinus flexilis, southwestern white, Pinus strobiformis, foxtail, Pinus balfouriana, Great Basin bristlecone, Pinus longaeva, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38250