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    Spotting ignition by lofted firebrands is a significant mechanism of fire spread, as observed in many largescale fires. The role of firebrands in fire propagation and the important parameters involved in spot fire development are studied. Historical large-scale fires, including wind-driven urban and wildland conflagrations and post-earthquake fires are given as examples. In addition, research on firebrand behaviour is reviewed. The phenomenon of spotting fires comprises three sequential mechanisms: generation, transport and ignition of recipient fuel. In order to understand these mechanisms, many experiments have been performed, such as measuring drag on firebrands, analysing the flow fields of flame and plume structures, collecting firebrands from burning materials, houses and wildfires, and observing firebrand burning characteristics in wind tunnels under the terminal velocity condition and ignition characteristics of fuel beds. The knowledge obtained from the experiments was used to develop firebrand models. Since Tarifa developed a firebrand model based on the terminal velocity approximation, many firebrand transport models have been developed to predict maximum spot fire distance. Combustion models of a firebrand were developed empirically and the maximum spot fire distance was found at the burnout limit. Recommendations for future research and development are provided.

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    Koo, Eunmo; Pagni, Patrick J.; Weise, David R.; Woycheese, John P. 2010. Firebrands and spotting ignition in large-scale fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19(7) 818-843. doi:10.1071/WF07119


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    fire spread, forest fire, post-earthquake fire, urban conflagration, wildland–urban interface fire

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