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    Description

    An introduced or exotic species is commonly defined as an organism accidentally or intentionally introduced to a new location by human activity (Williamson 1996; Richardson et al. 2000; Guo and Ricklefs 2010). However, the counting of exotics is often inconsistent. For example, in the US, previously published plant richness data for each state are only those either native or exotic to the US (USDA and NRCS 2004), not actually to the state. Yet, within-country (e.g., among states, counties) species introductions which form “homegrown exotics” (Cox 1999) or “native invaders” (Simberloff 2011) are undoubtedly numerous. The growing human population and associated activity increase species introductions at all levels, both international and internal but to date intercontinental species introductions have always been the focus. Those species introduced among neighboring areas are often unnoticed but they are actually far more frequent due to the proximity and environmental similarities. Many domestic exotic plant species exhibit high invasiveness such as Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass; introduced from the east coast to California) and Molothrus ater (brown-headed cowbird; introduced from the Great Plains to California).

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    Citation

    Guo, Q.F. 2011. Counting "exotics". NeoBiota 9:71-73.

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