Skip to Main Content
Formaldehyde emissions from ULEF- and NAF-bonded commercial hardwood plywood as influenced by temperature and relative humidityAuthor(s): Charles R. Frihart; James M. Wescott; Michael J. Birkeland; Kyle M. Gonner
Source: Proceedings of the International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe--Timber Committee, October 11-14, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland. [S.l. : s.n.], 2010: 13 p. [Paper WS-23]
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
PDF: View PDF (250.25 KB)
DescriptionIt is well documented in the literature that temperature and humidity can influence formaldehyde emissions from composite panels that are produced using urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives. This work investigates the effect of temperature and humidity on newer, ultra-low emitting formaldehyde urea formaldehyde (ULEF-UF) and no-added formaldehyde (NAF) adhesives. A modified version of the EN 717-3 method to collect formaldehyde coupled with the acetyl-acetone method to quantify formaldehyde emissions was used. Formaldehyde emissions from a commercial CARB phase II compliant hardwood-plywood panel bonded with a ULEF-UF resin increased greatly when panels were exposed to higher heat and humidity. Furthermore, the rate of emission for ULEF-UF panels increased with longer exposure at 100% humidity. In contrast, formaldehyde emissions from CARB phase II compliant hardwood-plywood bonded with a NAF resin were relatively stable at different temperature and relative humidity conditions and decreased over time. This work highlights the potential for long-term formaldehyde emissions from the new ULEF-UF, CARB phase II compliant resin systems.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationFrihart, Charles R.; Wescott, James M.; Birkeland, Michael J.; Gonner, Kyle M. 2010. Formaldehyde emissions from ULEF- and NAF-bonded commercial hardwood plywood as influenced by temperature and relative humidity. In: Proceedings of the international convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe--Timber Committee. 2010 October 11-14; Geneva, Switzerland. Paper WS-23: 13 p.
KeywordsFormaldehyde, plywood, adhesives, glue, temperature, humidity, composite materials, environmental monitoring, air pollution, measurement, hardwoods, soybean glue, heat, emissions, gluing, exposure tests, ASTM E 1333, thermal degradation
- Formaldehyde Emissions from Urea-Formaldehyde- and no-added-formaldehyde-Bonded particleboard as Influenced by Temperature and Relative Humidity
- Soy adhesives that can form durable bonds for plywood, laminated wood flooring, and particleboard
- Competitive soybean flour/phenol-formaldehyde adhesives for oriented strandboard
XML: View XML