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    Author(s): Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.John A. Stanturf; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Christopher Soriano
    Date: 2011
    Source: International Journal of Phytoremediation. 13(S1): 102-121.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (255.43 KB)


    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began promoting strategies for water reuse in 2004, and guidelines for safe and direct reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural purposes were approved in 2005 (Egyptian Code 501/2005). Twenty-four man-made forests were established that have been useful for assessing the efficacy of using treated wastewater for afforestation. At present, approximately 4,340 hectares are under irrigation with treated wastewater, utilizing a total daily volume of 467,400 cubic meters. Wastewater has been applied to trees along roads, greenbelts in cities, and woody production systems. Currently, a joint USDA Forest Service--Agricultural Research Service technical assistance team has been evaluating the feasibility of scaling up such afforestation efforts throughout Egypt. We describe information about: 1) suitable tree species that have been identified based on local soil characteristics, water quality, and quantity of water supply; 2) the benefits and consequences of using these species; 3) strategies to maximize the potential of afforestation with regard to improving water quality, maximizing resource production, increasing biodiversity, and limiting commercial inputs; and 4) potential long-term impacts on the natural resource base from afforestation.

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    Zalesny, Ronald S. Jr.; Stanturf, John A.; Evett, Steven R.; Kandil, Nabil F.; Soriano, Chris. 2011. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt I Afforestation strategies. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 13(S1): 102-121.


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    afforestation, forest products, phytoremediation, phytotechnologies, resource production, water quality

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