Skip to Main Content
A retrospective analysis of known and potential risks associated with exotic toadflax-feeding insectsAuthor(s): Sharlene E. Sing; Robert K. D. Peterson; David K. Weaver; Richard W. Hansen; George P. Markin
Source: Biological Control. 35: 276-287.
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
PDF: Download Publication (382.98 KB)
DescriptionTo date, eight exotic toadflax-feeding insect species have been accidentally or intentionally introduced to North America. Reports on their establishment and impact have been recorded for more than 60 years. Environmental risks linked to biological control of toadflax were identified in terms of host resources and undesirable impacts on the target species through the critical review of this record. Data gaps revealed during this retrospective analysis are addressed through suggestions for future research and associated experimental methodologies. Known and potential impacts of toadflax-feeding insects on both invasive toadflax and non-target species are examined. Recent programmatic demands for demonstrated agent efficacy and stringent host selectivity during the prerelease screening process clearly illustrate that classical biological control of invasive toadflax in North America is progressing beyond the so-called lottery approach.
- You may send email to firstname.lastname@example.org to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationSing, Sharlene E.; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Weaver, David K.; Hansen, Richard W.; Markin, George P. 2005. A retrospective analysis of known and potential risks associated with exotic toadflax-feeding insects. Biological Control. 35: 276-287.
Keywordstoadflax, biological control, invasive weeds, non-target effects, environmental risk
- Twenty-five years after: Post-introduction association of Mecinus janthinus s.l. with invasive host toadflaxes Linaria vulgaris and Linaria dalmatica in North America
- Toadflax stem miners and gallers: The original weed whackers
- Biology and host specificity of Rhinusa pilosa, a recommended biological control agent of Linaria vulgaris
XML: View XML