Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    One of Africa's greatest conservation successes is the recovery of elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations within protected areas (e.g. Aleper and Moe 2006), such as those in northern Botswana. This recovery poses several challenges, however. First, habitat within protected areas is becoming degraded from high intensity elephant browsing. Second, the increasing elephant and human populations in the region have led to large increases in human­elephant conflict along the periphery of protected areas (Sitati et al. 2005; Lee and Graham 2006). Management options include facilitating natural dispersal, active relocation, and culling. Relocation is prohibitively expensive as a population-level solution given the high per capita cost. Culling is politically unpopular given Botswana's booming wildlife tourist industry. Simultaneously, large areas of the neighboring countries of Namibia, Zambia and Angola have low elephant densities. Some of these governments desire to increase elephant populations within their protected areas to promote the growth of wildlife tourism. Thus, facilitated dispersal of elephants from high density areas of northern Botswana to protected areas in other countries with low elephant densities is an attractive potential solution.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Cushman, Samuel A.; Chase, Michael; Griffin, Curtice. 2010. Mapping landscape resistance to identify corridors and barriers for elephant movement in southern Africa [Chapter 19]. In: Cushman, Samuel A.; Huettmann, Falk, eds. Spatial complexity, informatics, and wildlife conservation. New York: Springer. p. 349-367.


    mapping, landscape resistance, elephant movement

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page