Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub

    Description

    Data collected in the International Crown Fire modeling Experiment during 1999 are evaluated to characterize the magnitude and duration of convective energy heating in full scale crown fires. To accomplish this objective data on total and radiant incident heat flux, air temperature, and horizontal and vertical gas velocities were evaluated. Total and radiant energy fluxes were measured. Temperatures were measured using bare Type K 0.13 mm wire diameter thermocouples. Gas velocities were measured using pitot-static type sensors designed specifically for velocity measurements in fires. The experiments occurred in 14 m tall jack pine stands. Flames were 18-25 m tall, fire spread rates were between 0.5 and 1.0 m-s-1. The magnitudes of the temperatures presented are representative of those found in naturally occurring wildland fires. The measured peak gas temperatures varied from 1000 to 2000 K, and gas velocities of 10 to 20 m-s-1. Convective heating rates reached 150 kW-m-2 for short durations (5 to 10 seconds) with sustained flux rates of 40 to 80 kW-m-2 for durations of (~20 to 40 s). The data suggest that maximum convective heat transfer coefficients to the sensor face range from 30 to 50 W-m-2-K-1.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to rmrspubrequest@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Butler, B. W. 2010. Characterization of convective heating in full scale wildland fires. In: Viegas, D. X., ed. Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Forest Fire Research; 15-18 November 2010; Coimbra, Portugal. Coimbra, Portugal: University of Coimbra. 9 p.

    Keywords

    fire Behavior, fire Intensity

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39348